Diabetes mellitus (dye-a-BEE-teez MEL-ih-tus)

A group of disorders in which there is a defect in the transfer of glucose (sugar) from the bloodstream into cells, leading to abnormally high levels of blood sugar (hyperglycemia).There are two distinct types of diabetes mellitus: insulin-dependent and noninsulin-dependent.

Insulin dependent diabetes
Insulin-dependent diabetes (Type I), also called juvenile-onset diabetes, is the more serious form of the disease. Treatment includes a diet limited in carbohydrates and saturated fat, exercise to burn glucose, and regular insulin injections, sometimes administered via a portable insulin pump.

Noninsulin dependent diabetes
Noninsulin-dependent diabetes (Type 2), also called adult-onset diabetes, results from the inability of the cells in the body to respond to insulin. As in Type I diabetes, treatment includes exercise and weight loss and a diet low in total carbohydrates and saturated fat. Some individuals require insulin injections; many rely on oral drugs, such as sulphonylureas metformin, or acarbose.

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