Laboratory Tests

Chromogranin A (CgA) – At A Glance
Why test? Read more . . .

Elevated Plasma Chromogranin A Is the First Indication of Recurrence in Radically Operated Midgut Carcinoid Tumors (Full Text)
Published online: January 29, 2009

Staffan Welin, Mats Stridsberg, Janet Cunningham, Dan Granberg,
Britt Skogseid, Kjell Öberg, Barbro Eriksson, Eva T. Janson
Department of Medical Sciences, Unit of Endocrine Oncology, Clinical   Chemistry, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden

Conclusion: P-CgA was the first marker to indicate tumor recurrence in the majorityof radically operated midgut carcinoid patients. To avoid unnecessaryand costly examinations in asymptomatic patients,we suggest that follow-up should comprise measurementsof P-CgA twice a year and annual ultrasonographyuntil P-CgA is elevated or clinical symptoms occur, at which time all efforts should be made to identify recurrent tumorlesions in order to give the patient the best possible treatment which, if possible, should be surgical removal of the recurrence.

NOTE: The importance of Chromogranin A as a neuroendicrine marker has been known and documented in the medical literature for over 20 years.

CgA Medical References
(Share these references with your doctor)

From the Medical Director of the Carcinoid Cancer Foundation

Note: The test for Octreotide (Sandostatin) blood levels is still considered experimental by most insurance companies and these companies may therefore NOT pay for this test. For more information regarding this test contact InterScience Institute.

How to Diagnose and Monitor Carcinoid (neuroendocrine tumors): Which Tests and How Often?

Compiled by Susan L. Anderson – September 9, 2002, Updated September 2007

Susan (a carcinoid patient) has compiled a summary of “Which tests and how often” from information provided by Drs. Anthony, Warner and Woltering. After her summary there is additional information from each of these doctors based on their own experience and additional information for the physician. Susan has provided information and support to the carcinoid community since early 1997.

Testing preparation

Preparing for the 24-hour Urine 5HIAA Test

How and Why the 5HIAA Test Is Performed, Normal Range (from Medline Plus, a service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health)


Appropriate Use Criteria for Somatostatin Receptor PET Imaging in Neuroendocrine Tumors. Read full text 

Gallium-68 PET/CT:  please visit our website for more information on the scan; clinical trials with different agents are currently ongoing. On August 21, 2019, the US Food and Drug Administration approved Gallium-68 PET/CT with DOTATOC.

Procedure guidelines for PET/CT tumour imaging with 68 Ga-DOTA-conjugated peptides: 68 Ga-DOTA-TOC, 68 Ga-DOTA-NOC, 68Ga-DOTA-TATE (full text)

Gallium-68 PET: a new frontier in receptor cancer imaging.
The recent introduction of PET imaging with gallium-68 has major bearings in current and future clinical practice. Its labelling with DOTA compounds has cleared the way for somatostatin receptor imaging with a viable PET agent, with all its inherent imaging advantages compared to single photon imaging. The pre-clinical and clinical applications of this technique has been successful in a variety of tumours, particularly Neuroendocrine Tumors (NETs) and its labelling with other ligands and molecules will improve the management of other tumours and the assessment of infection.

(4/28/10) Functional Imaging of NeuroendocrineTumors: A Head-to-Head Comparison of Somatostatin Receptor Scintigraphy, 123I-MIBG Scintigraphy, and 18F-FDG PET

Tina Binderup, Ulrich Knigge, Annika Loft, Jann Mortensen, Andreas Pfeifer, Birgitte Federspiel, Carsten Palnaes Hansen, Liselotte Højgaard, and Andreas Kjaer

Authors’ Affiliations: Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark; Cluster for Molecular Imaging, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

J Nucl Med 2010; 51:704–712

Click here to read the Abstract

What is an OctreoScan®?

From the Ohio State University Medical Center website.


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