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Gabapentin (Brand name Neurontin®)
An anticonvulsant drug also used for relief of peripheral neuropathy pain. family of drugs.
Gallbladder
The pear-shaped organ found below the liver. Bile is concentrated and stored in the gallbladder.
Gallstone
Solid material that forms in the gallbladder or common bile duct. Gallstones are made of cholesterol or other substances found in the gallbladder. They may occur as one large stone or as many small ones, and vary from the size of a golf ball to a grain of sand. Also called cholelith.
Gamma irradiation
A type of radiation therapy that uses gamma radiation. Gamma radiation is a type of high-energy radiation that is different from X rays.
Gamma knife
Radiation therapy in which high-energy rays are aimed at a tumor from many angles in a single treatment session.
Gastrectomy
An operation to remove all or part of the stomach.
Gastric
Having to do with the stomach.
Gastric reflux
The backward flow of stomach acid contents into the esophagus (the tube that connects the mouth to the stomach). Also called esophageal reflux or gastroesophageal reflux.
Gastrin
A peptide hormone secreted by cells in the stomach that stimulates secretion of acid into the lumen of the stomach. Gastrin is a major physiological regulator of gastric acid secretion. It also has an important trophic or growth-promoting influence on the gastric mucosa. Excessive secretion of gastrin, or hypergastrinemia, is a well-recognized cause of a severe disease known as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, which is seen at low frequency in man and dogs. The hallmark of this disease is gastric and duodenal ulceration due to excessive and unregulated secretion of gastric acid. Most commonly, hypergastrinemia is the result of gastrin-secreting tumors (gastrinomas), which develop in the pancreas or duodenum.
Gastrinoma
A tumor that causes overproduction of gastric acid. It usually occurs in the islet cells of the pancreas but may also occur in the esophagus, stomach, spleen, or lymph nodes.
Gastroesophageal reflux
The backward flow of stomach acid contents into the esophagus (the tube that connects the mouth to the stomach). Also called esophageal reflux or gastric reflux.
Gastrointestinal (GI)
Refers to the stomach and intestines.
Gastrointestinal tract
The stomach and intestines.
Gastroscopy
An examination of the inside of the stomach using a thin, lighted tube (called a gastroscope) passed through the mouth and esophagus.
Gefitinib (brand name Iressa®)
Iressa is an anticancer drug that inhibits an enzyme (tyrosine kinase) present in lung cancer cells, as well as other cancers and normal tissues, that appears to be important to the growth of cancer cells. Iressa is used as a single agent for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that has progressed after, or failed to respond to two other types of chemotherapy (drugs used to kill cancer cells). and is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Also called ZD 1839.
Gemcitabine (Brand name Gemzar®)
An anticancer drug.
Generic
Official nonbrand names by which medicines are known. Generic names usually refer to the chemical name of the drug.
Ghrelin
A peptide hormone produced predominantly by the stomach. Ghrelin appears to be another hormone produced in almost all gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, has little if any biological activity, and may be useful as a marker for response to therapy.
GIST
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor. A type of tumor that usually begins in cells in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. It can be benign or malignant.
Gleevec® (Generic name Imaptimib)
A drug that is being studied for its ability to inhibit the growth of certain cancers. It interferes with a portion of the protein produced by the bcr/abl oncogene. Also called imatinib mesylate and STI571.
Glucagon
A hormone produced by the pancreas that increases the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood.
Glucagonoma
A rare pancreatic tumor that produces a hormone called glucagon. Glucagonomas can produce symptoms similar to diabetes, a disease associated with a tumor of the pancreas. It is marked by excess blood sugar, mouth swelling, anemia, weight loss, and a rash.
Glutamine
An amino acid used in nutrition therapy. It is also being studied for the treatment of diarrhea caused by radiation therapy.
Gnenome
The complete genetic material of an organism.
Goblet cell carcinoid (of the appendix)
Goblet cell carcinoid is a rather rare neoplasm that has the histologic features of both carcinoids and adenocarcinoma. It is a neuroendocrine tumor that is considered a malignancy that is more aggressive than typical carcinoid tumor of the appendix.
Growth hormone
A substance made by the body that functions to regulate cell division and cell survival. Some growth factors are also produced in the laboratory and used in biological therapy.
Guaiac test
A test that checks for hidden blood in the stool.