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EBR (External Beam Radiation)
See External Beam Radiation
EBV (Epstein-Barr virus)
A common virus that remains dormant in most people. It has been associated with certain cancers, including Burkitt's lymphoma, immunoblastic lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Ecchymosis
A small bruise caused by blood leaking from broken blood vessels into the tissues of the skin or mucous membranes.
Ectopic
In an abnormal position.
Edema
The accumulation of fluid in part of the body.
Effusion
A collection of fluid in a body cavity, usually between two adjoining tissues. For example, a pleural effusion is the collection of fluid between two layers of the pleura (the lung's covering).
Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG)
A test that takes recordings of the electrical activity of the heart.
Embolism
A block in an artery caused by blood clots or other substances, such as fat globules, infected tissue, or cancer cells.
Embolization
The blocking of an artery by a clot or foreign material. Embolization can be done as treatment to block the flow of blood to a tumor. See alsochemoembolization and bland embolization.
Emesis
Vomiting.
Enalapril (brand name Vasotec)
An antihypertensive agent that can also be used to slow or prevent the progression of heart disease in people with childhood cancer treated with drugs that may be harmful to the heart.
Encapsulated
Confined to a specific, localized area and surrounded by a thin layer of tissue.
Encephalopathy
A disorder of the brain that can be caused by disease, injury, drugs, or chemicals.
Endocrine cancer
Cancer that occurs in endocrine tissue, the tissue in the body that secretes hormones.
Endogenous
Produced inside an organism or cell. The opposite is external (exogenous) production.
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
ERCP. A procedure to x-ray the pancreatic duct, hepatic duct, common bile duct, duodenal papilla, and gallbladder. In this procedure, a thin, lighted tube (endoscope) is passed through the mouth and down into the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). A smaller tube (catheter) is then inserted through the endoscope into the bile and pancreatic ducts. A dye is injected through the catheter into the ducts, and an X ray is taken.
Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)
A procedure in which an endoscope (a thin, lighted tube) is inserted into the body. The endoscope is used to bounce high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) off internal organs to make a picture (sonogram). Also called endosonography.
Endoscopy
A procedure that uses an endoscope to diagnose or treat a condition. There are many types of endoscopy; examples include colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, gastroscopy, enteroscopy, and esophogealgastroduodenoscopy (EGD).
Endostatin
A drug that is being studied for its ability to prevent the growth of new blood vessels into a solid tumor. Endostatin belongs to the family of drugs called angiogenesis inhibitors.
Enteral nutrition
A form of nutrition that is delivered into the digestive system as a liquid. Drinking nutrition beverages or formulas and tubefeeding are forms of enteral nutrition. People who are unable to meet their needs with food and beverages alone, and who do not have vomiting or uncontrollable diarrhea may be given tubefeedings. Tubefeeding can be used to add to what a person is able to eat or can be the only source of nutrition. A small feeding tube may be placed through the nose into the stomach or the small intestine, or it may be surgically placed into the stomach or the intestinal tract through an opening made on the outside of the abdomen, depending on how long it will be used.
Enzyme
Biological catalyst. A protein that speeds up chemical reactions in the body. Enzymes accelerate the rates of reactions while experiencing no permanent chemical modification as a result of their participation.
Epigastric
Having to do with the upper middle area of the abdomen.
Epinephrine
Epinephrine is a naturally occurring hormone, also called adrenaline. It is one of two chemicals (the other is norepinephrine) released by the adrenal gland. Epinephrine increases the speed and force of heartbeats and thereby the work that can be done by the heart. It dilates the airways to improve breathing and narrows blood vessels in the skin and intestine so that an increased flow of blood reaches the muscles and allows them to cope with the demands of exercise. Epinephrine has been produced synthetically as a drug since 1900. It remains the drug of choice for treatment of anaphylaxis. It is contraindicated in the treatment of carcinoid crisis. Epinephrine provokes flushing in patients with the carcinoid syndrome.
Epothilone
A drug obtained from bacteria that interferes with cell division. Some epothilones are being studied as treatments for cancer.
ERCP (Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography)
A procedure used to diagnose and sometimes remove gallstones blocking the common bile duct. It involves swallowing an endoscope, which the doctor gently moves through the gastrointestinal tract to the small intestine. A special dye is released into the small intestine so that gallstones can be seen on x-ray. This technique can be adapted for use in surgery to remove gallstones using a tiny basket attached to the end of the endoscope. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.
Erythema
Redness of the skin.
Erythrocyte
The red blood cell that carries oxygen to body cells and carbon dioxide away from body cells.
Esophagitis
Inflammation of the esophagus (food pipe).
Esophagus
The muscular tube through which food passes from the throat to the stomach.
ESR (commonly known as sed rate)
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate. The distance red blood cells travel in one hour in a sample of blood as they settle to the bottom of a test tube. The sedimentation rate is increased in inflammation, infection, cancer, rheumatic diseases, and diseases of the blood and bone marrow. Also called sedimentation rate.
Estrogen
A female hormone produced primarily by the ovaries.
Estrogen receptor assay (ER assay)
A test that determines if breast cancer is stimulated by the hormone estrogen.
Etiology
The cause or origin of disease.
Etoposide, VP-16 (brand names VePesid®,Toposar®)
Etoposide (e-toe-POE-side) belongs to the group of medicines known as antineoplastic agents. It is used to treat cancer of the testicles and certain types of lung cancer. It is also sometimes used to treat some other kinds of cancer in both males and females. The exact way that etoposide acts against cancer is not known. However, it seems to interfere with the growth of the cancer cells, which are eventually destroyed.
Excision
Surgical removal.
External Beam Radiation (EBR)
A radiation treatment that uses a machine to aim high-energy radiation at the cancerous tissue. For carcinoid it is mainly used for painful bone metastases but is also useful for brain metastases and is useful for incompletely resected or recurrent carcinoid of the thymus. There is also some experience indicating possible limited usefulness for EBR in treating inoperable mediastinal metastases from very aggressive atypical carcinoids of the lung. In the presence of renal insufficiency when radiographic iodine containing contrast cannot be used for angiogram   External Beam Radiation (EBR) could have application in very selective cases. Multi beam EBR has no use and is unsafe to debulk multiple liver metastases.