The references cited below were used when the home page article was prepared many years ago and along with the older references used was a newer one by Modlin and Sandler indicating an increase in frequency:
* Moertel, C. G. An Odyssey in the land of small tumors, J. Clin. Onco 1983; 5: 1503-22.
* (1.5 new cases/100,000 general population per year = 2500 new cases yearly in the U.S.)
Vinik, A I., Thompson, N.V. in HolNeoplasms of the gastroenteropancreatic endocrine system in Hollland, J.F. (Ed.): Cancer Medicine. Cancer Medicine. Philadelphia, Lea and Fibiger, 1992.
* (Annual under 10/million)
Goodwin, J.D. Carcinoid tumours: An analysis of 2837 cases. Cancer; 1975: 36: 560-69.
* (Carcinoid incidence 0.5-1.5/100,000)
Norheim, I., Oberg, K. et al. Malignant carcinoid tumors: An analysis of 103 patients with regard to tumor localization, hormone production and survival. Am. Surg. 1987; 206: 115-25.
* Modlin, I.M., Sandor A. An analysis of 8305 cases of carcinoid tumor. Cancer, 1997; 79: 813-29. (A complex meta-analysis of incidence statistics indicating even higher frequency of occurrence of carcinoid)
Dr. Modlin published an update on the incidence of Ccarcinoid tumor in February 2003.
A 5-Decade Analysis of 13,715 Carcinoid Tumors (Click here for abstract)
Irving M. Modlin, MD, Kevin D. Lys, MD, Mark Kidd, PhD; Cancer 2003 Feb 15;97(4):934-59
CONCLUSIONS: Carcinoids appear to have increased in overall incidence over the past 30 years; for some sites, this trend has been evident for nearly half a century. Recent marked increases in gastric and rectal carcinoids and a concomitant decrease in appendiceal carcinoid incidence may be due in part to varying rules of registration among the compiled databases examined in this report or to improvements in diagnostic technology; increased awareness of and about carcinoid tumors also may play a significant role. In 12.9% of all patients with carcinoid, distant metastases already were evident at the time of diagnosis; the overall 5-year survival rate for all carcinoid tumors, regardless of site, was 67.2%. These findings bring into question the widely promulgated relative benignity of carcinoid disease. Certain carcinoid tumors, such as those of the rectum, appear to be over-represented among the black and Asian populations within the United States, suggesting the role of genetics in the development of this intriguing disease.