Regarding the review article on this website, what is the reference used for the number of new cases diagnosed each year?

The references cited below were used when the home page article was prepared many years ago and along with the older references used was a newer one by Modlin and Sandler indicating an increase in frequency:

* Moertel, C. G. An Odyssey in the land of small tumors, J. Clin. Onco 1983; 5: 1503-22.
* (1.5 new cases/100,000 general population per year = 2500 new cases yearly in the U.S.)
Vinik, A I., Thompson, N.V. in HolNeoplasms of the gastroenteropancreatic endocrine system in  Hollland, J.F. (Ed.): Cancer Medicine. Cancer Medicine. Philadelphia, Lea and Fibiger, 1992.
* (Annual under 10/million)
Goodwin, J.D. Carcinoid tumours: An analysis of 2837 cases. Cancer; 1975: 36: 560-69.
* (Carcinoid incidence 0.5-1.5/100,000)
Norheim, I., Oberg, K. et  al.  Malignant carcinoid tumors: An analysis of 103 patients with regard to tumor localization, hormone production and survival. Am. Surg. 1987; 206: 115-25.
* Modlin, I.M., Sandor A.  An analysis of 8305 cases of carcinoid tumor. Cancer, 1997; 79: 813-29. (A complex meta-analysis of incidence statistics indicating even higher frequency of occurrence of carcinoid)

Dr. Modlin published  an update on the incidence of Ccarcinoid tumor in February 2003.
A 5-Decade Analysis of 13,715 Carcinoid Tumors (Click here for abstract)
Irving M. Modlin, MD, Kevin D. Lys, MD, Mark Kidd, PhD; Cancer 2003 Feb 15;97(4):934-59

CONCLUSIONS: Carcinoids appear to have increased in overall incidence over the past 30 years; for some sites, this trend has been evident for nearly half a century. Recent marked increases in gastric and rectal carcinoids and a concomitant decrease in appendiceal carcinoid incidence may be due in part to varying rules of registration among the compiled databases examined in this report or to improvements in diagnostic technology; increased awareness of and about carcinoid tumors also may play a significant role. In 12.9% of all patients with carcinoid, distant metastases already were evident at the time of diagnosis; the overall 5-year survival rate for all carcinoid tumors, regardless of site, was 67.2%. These findings bring into question the widely promulgated relative benignity of carcinoid disease. Certain carcinoid tumors, such as those of the rectum, appear to be over-represented among the black and Asian populations within the United States, suggesting the role of genetics in the development of this intriguing disease.

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