Treatment of liver metastases in patients with neuroendocrine tumors: a comprehensive review.

Harring TR, Nguyen NT, Goss JA, O’Mahony CA

Int J Hepatol. 2011 Oct 13; 2011;2011:154541(doi: 10.4061/2011/154541)

Patients diagnosed with Neuroendocrine Tumors (NET) often are also diagnosed with Neuroendocrine Liver Metastases (NLM) during the course of their disease. NLM can cause significant morbidity and mortality, oftentimes much more than compared to patients with NET. Treatment options have been limited in the past, focusing on surgical resections, for which only a minority of patients are candidates. However, developments of new treatment modalities have progressed rapidly and patients with NLM now have significantly more options, including surgical-directed therapies; liver-directed therapies; and nonsurgical, non-liver-directed therapies. This review provides information about the roles of hepatic resection, orthotopic liver resection, radiofrequency ablation, hepatic artery embolization and hepatic artery chemoembolization, hepatic artery radioembolization and selective internal radiation therapy, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, systemic chemotherapy, biotherapies including somatostatin analogs and interferon-?, vascular endothelial growth factor and mTOR targets, and microRNA-regulated pathways. Given these new options, the clinician can tailor therapy specific to the patient diagnosed with NLM, thereby giving the patient the best possible chance of prolonged survival.

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