Carcinoid heart disease : presentation, diagnosis, and management

Fox DJ, Khattar RS

Heart. 2004 Oct; 90(10): 1224-8


Tricuspid and pulmonary valve regurgitation usually occurs as a secondary phenomenon caused by dilatation of the valve ring secondary to right ventricular failure or pulmonary hypertension, respectively. Primary diseases of the tricuspid or pulmonary valves are uncommon, but the more likely causes might include congenital abnormalities, rheumatic heart disease, or infective endocarditis. Carcinoid heart disease is a rare, but interesting and important cause of intrinsic tricuspid and pulmonary valve disease leading to significant morbidity and mortality caused by right heart failure. When treated medically, and in appropriate cases surgically, significant benefits in overall quality of life and long term survival can be achieved. We review the current literature regarding the pathophysiological basis of the disease, the cardiovascular complications, and the currently available treatment strategie.

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