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Saline
A solution of salt and water
Samarium 153
A radioactive substance used in cancer therapy.
Sandostatin ® s.c., Sandostatin LAR® Depot (generic name octreotide acetate)
A somatostatin analogue, anti-hormone drug that is indicated for treatment in patients with metastatic carcinoid tumors, carcinoid syndrome and related NETs. It is given by sub cutaneously injection 2-4 times per day, and then the injection may be changed to once every 3-4 weeks using a long acting release (LAR) dosage. Continous infusion via (insulin) pump has been rarely used by some physicians for patients requiring very large dosage.. Octreotide (Sandostatin®) often improves symptoms of the carcinoid syndrome (severe diarrhea and flushing). In some cases, this anti-hormone drug inhibits and sometimes reverses the growth of the tumors. Manufactured by Novartis.
Scan
A picture of structures inside the body. Scans often used in diagnosing, staging, and monitoring disease include liver scans, bone scans, and computed tomography (CT) or computerized axial tomography (CAT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. In liver scanning and bone scanning, radioactive substances that are injected into the bloodstream collect in these organs. A scanner that detects the radiation is used to create pictures. In CT scanning, an x-ray machine linked to a computer is used to produce detailed pictures of organs inside the body. MRI scans use a large magnet connected to a computer to create pictures of areas inside the body.
Sedimentation rate (Sed rate, ESR)
Is the measurement of the  rate at which the red blood cells fall in blood test tube during an hour. It is a common hematology test, which is a non-specific measure of inflammation, infection, cancer, rheumatic diseases and diseases of the blood and bone marrow. This is also called the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR).
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI)
A popular class of antidepressant medication that typically decreases anxiety as well as depression (Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil). It acts by blocking the reuptake of serotonin. It is contraindicated in patients with carcinoid syndrome as it may preciptate a carcinoid crisis or worsen symptoms of carcinoid syndrome.
Sepsis
The presence of bacteria or their toxins in the blood or tissues.
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT)
A hormone found in the brain, platelets, digestive tract, and pineal gland. It acts both as a neurotransmitter (a substance that nerves use to send messages to one another) and a vasoconstrictor (a substance that causes blood vessels to narrow). A lack of serotonin in the brain is thought to be a cause of depression. It is now widely understood that 95% of the serotonin in the body resides in the gut.
Serum albumin
The main protein in blood plasma. Low levels of serum albumin occur in people with malnutrition, inflammation, and serious liver and kidney disease.
Serum tumor marker test
A blood test that measures the amount of substances called tumor markers also known as biomarkers. Tumor markers are released into the blood by tumor cells or by other cells in response to tumor cells. A high level of a tumor marker may be a sign of cancer. See neuroendocrine markers.
Shingles
See Herpes zoster.
Short Bowel Syndrome
Short bowel syndrome is a group of problems affecting people who have had half or more of their small intestine removed. It is characterized by malabsorption due to loss of small intestinal surface area. The degree and type of resulting nutritional deficiencies depend on the length and location of the bowel that is lost. In general, patients will develop symptoms of short bowel syndrome when less than 200 cm of functional small bowel remains. As the majority of nutrient digestion and absorption is complete within the first 100 cm of jejunum, most patients will be able to maintain nutritional balance using oral feeding if at least 100 cm of intact jejunum is still present. Patients with less than 100 cm will likely require parenteral nutrition.
Side effects
Secondary effects of drugs used for disease treatment.
Sigmoidoscopy
The visual examination of the rectum and lower colon using a tubular instrument called a sigmoidoscope.
SIR-Spheres®
The SIR-Spheres® are biocompatible radioactive microspheres that emit yttrium-90. They are delivered by a percutaneous approach into the hepatic artery feeding the tumors in the liver. A single dose of FUDR chemotherapy is injected into the liver during the same treatment session as the SIR-Spheres®.
Small cell lung cancer
A type of lung cancer in which the cells appear small and round when viewed under the microscope. Also called oat cell lung cancer.
Small intestine
The part of the digestive tract that extends from the stomach to the large intestine. The small intestine includes the duodenum (closest to the stomach), the jejunum, and the ileum (closest to the large intestine).
Somatostatin analogues
Are drugs such as octreotide and lanreotide that copy or mimic the action of somatostatin. They are also known as biotherapy. Somatostatin is a substance produced naturally in many parts of the body. It can stop the over production of hormones, causing the carcinoid syndrome.
Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS, OctreoScan®)
A type of radionuclide scan used to find carcinoid and other types of tumors. In SRS, radioactive octreotide, a drug similar to somatostatin, is injected into a vein and travels through the bloodstream. The radioactive octreotide attaches to tumor cells that have receptors for somatostatin. A radiation-measuring device detects the radioactive octreotide, and makes pictures showing where the tumor cells are in the body. This procedure is also called an octreotide scan.
Spiral CT scan
A detailed picture of areas inside the body. The pictures are created by a computer linked to an x-ray machine that scans the body in a spiral path. Also called helical computed tomography.
Sputum
Secretions produced by the lungs
SSRI (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors)
See Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors
Staging
Determination of extent of the cancer in the body.
Stains
Chemicals applied to a biological sample in order to uncover the presence of certain substances in the sample under the microscope if they are present. The presence of different substances in a sample are shown by using different stains.
Steatorrhea
Is the presence of excess fat in feces, causing it to be frothy, foul-smelling and floating.  This is a finding that is typical in malabsorption syndromes.(type of diarrhea that may occur when using octreotide.)
Stent
A device placed in a body structure (such as a blood vessel or the gastrointestinal tract) to provide support and keep the structure open.
Steroid (drug)
This is the short term for corticosteroid drugs which is used to reduce swelling and inflammation quickly.
Stoma
Is an opening, either natural or surgically created, which connects a portion of a body cavity to the surface of the body.
Stomatitis
Temporary inflammation and soreness of the mouth.
Streptozocin (brand name Zanosar®)
Is an antineoplastic medication. It interferes with the growth of cancer cells and slows their growth and spread in the body.
Subcutaneous (sc)
Beneath the skin.
Syndrome
A set of symptoms or conditions that occur together and suggest the presence of a certain disease or an increased chance of developing the disease.
Systemic disease/therapy/chemotherapy
A disease/therapy/chemotherapy that affects the entire body instead of a specific organ.