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IBD (Inflammatory Bowel Disease)
The term “inflammatory bowel disease” has been used to refer to both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, the causes of which are unknown. Crohn's disease is a chronic autoimmune disease that can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract but most commonly occurs in the ileum (the area where the small and large intestine meet). Ulcerative Colitis is a chronic, episodic, inflammatory disease of the large intestine and rectum characterized by bloody diarrhea.
IBS (Irritable Bowel Syndrome)
Is a condition characterized by frequently alternating constipation and diarrhea in the absence of any disease process. It is usually accompanied by abdominal pain, especially in the lower left quadrant, bloating, and flatulence. Other symptoms, such as heartburn, lower back pain, and agitation, may be present concurrently.
Idiopathic
Describes a disease of unknown cause.
Ileostomy
A surgical opening in the abdomen connected to the small intestine to allow stool to be emptied into a collection bag.
Ileum
The lowest section of the small intestine, which attaches to the large intestine.
IM (Intramuscular)
Within or into muscle.
Imatinib mesylate (brand name – Gleevec®)
A drug that is being studied for its ability to inhibit the growth of certain cancers. It interferes with a portion of the protein produced by the bcr/abl oncogene. Also called Gleevec and STI571.
Immunity (Immune system)
The body's ability to fight infection and disease.
Immunoassay
A test that uses the binding of antibodies to antigens to identify and measure certain substances. Immunoassays may be used to diagnose disease. Also, test results can provide information about a disease that may help in planning treatment.
Immunohistochemistry
The techique for testing specific substances in biopsy/tumor tissue by staining with dye coupled to antibodies specific for the substance being tested. For the neuroendocrine group stains such as ; chromogranin, serotonin, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and synaptophysin are used.
Immunosuppression
Weakening of the immune system that causes a lowered ability to fight infection and disease.
Immunotherapy
The artificial stimulation of the body's immune system to treat or fight disease.
In situ cancer
Early cancer that has not spread to neighboring tissue.
In vitro
In the laboratory (outside the body). The opposite of in vivo (in the body).
In vivo
In the body. The opposite of in vitro (outside the body or in the laboratory).
Incidence
The number of new cases of a disease diagnosed each year.
Indium-111 Pentreotide
An anticancer drug belonging to a family of drugs called radiopharmaceuticals.
Indolent
A type of cancer that grows slowly.
Infiltration
The leaking of fluid or medicines into tissues, which can cause swelling.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
A general term that refers to the inflammation of the colon and rectum. Inflammatory bowel disease includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.Not to be confused with IBS (irritable bowel syndrome).
Infusion
Delivering fluids or medications into the bloodstream over a period of time.
Infusion pump
A device that delivers measured amounts of fluids or medications into the bloodstream over a period of time.
Injection
Pushing a medication into the body with the use of a syringe and needle. Intramuscular (IM) injection: Into the muscle. Intravenous (IV) injection: Into the vein. Subcutaneous (SC) injection: Into the fatty tissue under the skin.
Institutional Review Board (IRB)
A group of scientists, doctors, clergy, and consumers at each health care facility that participates in a clinical trial. IRBs are designed to protect study participants. They review and must approve the action plan for every clinical trial. They check to see that the trial is well designed, does not involve undue risks, and includes safeguards for patients.
Insulinoma (Islet Cells Adenoma)
An insulinoma is a usually benign tumor of the insulin-secreting cells of the pancreas.
Interferon
A naturally produced chemical released by the body in response to viral infections. Interferon can be artificially produced and used as a form of immunotherapy.A biological response modifier (a substance that can improve the body's natural response to infections and other diseases). Interferons interfere with the division of cancer cells and can slow tumor growth. There are several types of interferons, including interferon-alpha, -beta, and -gamma. The body normally produces these substances. They are also made in the laboratory to treat cancer and other diseases. Alpha-interferons may control symptoms of carcinoid syndrome and produce objective biochemical responses (greater than 50% suppression of 5-HIAA).
Interleukin
A biological response modifier (substance that can improve the body's natural response to infection and disease) that helps the immune system fight infection and cancer. These substances are normally produced by the body. They are also made in the laboratory for use in treating cancer and other diseases.
Intravenous (IV)
Injection into a vein.
Iodine I 131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (131 I-MIBG)
A radioactive substance that is used in imaging tests, and is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called radiopharmaceuticals.
IRB
See Institutional Review Board
Irinotecan-CPT 11 (Camptosar®)
An anticancer drug that belongs to a family of drugs called topoisomerase inhibitors. It is a camptothecin analog. Also called CPT 11.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
Irritable bowel syndrome is characterized by a group of symptoms in which abdominal pain or discomfort is associated with a change in bowel pattern, such as loose or more frequent bowel movements, diarrhea, and/or constipation.The diagnosis of Irritable Bowel Syndrome has relied on a diagnosis of exclusion. Because the symptoms of IBS share the symptoms of so many other intestinal illnesses, it sometimes takes years before a correct diagnosis is made to exclude the obvious, and not so obvious, conditions which present symptoms similiar to IBS.IBS is often misdiagnosed or misnamed as colitis, mucous colitis, spastic colon, irritable bowel disease or spastic bowel (colon).
Islet cell cancer (tumors)
Islet cell tumors are some of the rarest of the neuroendocrine tumors, and include VIPomas, gastrinomas, insulinomas, glucagonomas, and pancreatic islet cell carcinomas. Some islet cells are non-functional. They do not produce a homone that, as of yet, the medical profession can identify or a syndrome that they recongize.